The EMV (Europay, Mastercard, and Visa) liability shift refers to a significant change in the way liability for fraudulent card transactions is assigned between merchants, card issuers, and payment processors. It was introduced to encourage the adoption of EMV chip card technology, which provides greater security compared to traditional magnetic stripe cards.
Prior to the EMV liability shift, if a fraudulent transaction occurred at a point-of-sale (POS) terminal, the issuer of the card (the bank or financial institution that issued the card to the cardholder) typically bore the liability for the fraudulent charges. However, after the shift, the liability for certain types of fraudulent transactions shifted to whichever party—either the merchant or the issuer—had not upgraded their systems to accept EMV chip cards.
Here’s how it works:
- EMV Chip Cards: EMV chip cards contain a microchip that securely stores and processes cardholder data. When a chip card is used for payment at an EMV-enabled terminal, it generates a unique transaction code for that specific purchase, making it difficult for fraudsters to counterfeit the card.
- EMV-Enabled Terminals: Merchants need to upgrade their POS terminals to accept chip cards and process transactions using the EMV standard. These terminals typically require the cardholder to insert the chip card into a slot rather than swiping the magnetic stripe.
- Liability Shift: The liability shift dictates that if a fraudulent transaction occurs with a chip-enabled card at a non-EMV enabled terminal (e.g., a merchant has not upgraded their system), the liability for the fraud generally shifts to the merchant. Conversely, if a fraudulent transaction occurs with a magnetic stripe card at an EMV-enabled terminal, the liability generally remains with the issuer.
It’s important to note that the liability shift does not absolve card issuers of all responsibility. For example, if the merchant has upgraded to an EMV-enabled terminal and the transaction was processed correctly, but the issuer failed to detect and prevent fraud, the issuer may still bear the liability.
The intention behind the EMV liability shift is to encourage the adoption of more secure payment methods, such as EMV chip cards and terminals, to reduce counterfeit card fraud. The shift has motivated many businesses to upgrade their systems to accept chip cards, thereby enhancing security in card transactions.