Card Verification Value 2 (CVV2)

In payments, Card Verification Value 2 (CVV2), also known as Card Security Code (CSC), Card Verification Code (CVC2), or Card Validation Code (CVC), is a three- or four-digit security code printed on payment cards. CVV2 is an additional security feature used to verify that the person making a Card Not Present (CNP) transaction has physical possession of the card.

Here’s how CVV2 works:

  1. Card Information: The CVV2 code is a numeric code printed on the back of Visa, Mastercard, and Discover cards. For American Express cards, the four-digit CVV2 code is located on the front, above the card number.
  2. Authentication: When making a CNP transaction, the cardholder is typically required to provide the CVV2 code along with other card details, such as the card number, expiration date, and billing address.
  3. Verification: The merchant’s payment system or payment gateway validates the CVV2 code by comparing it with the code stored by the issuing bank. This helps ensure that the person entering the CVV2 code has physical possession of the card.

Now, let’s discuss the pros and cons of CVV2:


  1. Enhanced Security: CVV2 provides an additional layer of security to CNP transactions. It helps verify that the person entering the card details has physical possession of the card, reducing the risk of fraudulent transactions.
  2. Fraud Prevention: By requiring the CVV2 code, merchants can deter fraudsters who may have obtained stolen card numbers but do not have access to the corresponding CVV2 codes. This makes it harder for unauthorized individuals to use stolen card details for online or remote purchases.
  3. Liability Shift: In some cases, if a fraudulent CNP transaction occurs, and the merchant successfully verifies the CVV2 code during the transaction, the liability for the chargeback may shift from the merchant to the card issuer. This can provide some protection for merchants against certain types of fraud.


  1. Limited Protection: While CVV2 adds a layer of security, it is not foolproof. Fraudsters can still obtain card details, including the CVV2 code, through various means such as phishing, skimming devices, or hacking. Therefore, merchants should not rely solely on CVV2 for fraud prevention and should implement additional security measures.
  2. Not Present for In-Person Transactions: CVV2 is primarily designed for CNP transactions and does not provide the same level of authentication for Card Present transactions. In face-to-face transactions, the physical presence of the card provides additional verification.
  3. Potential Inconvenience: Requiring customers to enter the CVV2 code during online or remote transactions can add a step to the checkout process, which some customers may find inconvenient or confusing. This can potentially lead to abandoned transactions or increased customer friction.

It’s important to note that while CVV2 adds an extra layer of security, it should not be considered as the sole method of preventing fraud. Merchants should implement a comprehensive set of security measures, such as encryption, tokenization, address verification, and fraud monitoring, to mitigate the risks associated with CNP transactions and protect both their customers and their businesses.

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